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A circular flux design is different from the three existing topologies.  Magnetic flux from circular magnets directly enters the coils, eliminating the need for magnetic iron.  This new fourth generator/motor design providing these advantages:  
  • Without magnetic iron, the device can be larger in diameter at the same weight, increasing power by the square of the diameter increase.
  • Power losses associated with magnetic iron:  eddy currents, hysteresis, core saturation, and cogging are eliminated, increasing efficiency.
With grants from California's Energy Innovations Small Grant Program and the National Science Foundation, circular flux technology has shown dramatic improvement over the best state-of-the-art, including a dramatic increase in power-to-weight and torque per ampere (torque constant) while lowering cost and reducing size.

A new design increases the ratio of power-to-weight, -cost, and -size 

for electrical generators and motors (US Patents 8,487,486, 9,960,647, and 10,181,375)